Invisible privileges

1.

Let’s review the evidence.

African-Americans are twice as likely to be stopped by the police. Police officers speak less respectfully to them. They are more likely to use violence against them. Overall, African-American men get killed by the police 2.5 times as often as White men. Then, African-Americans face discrimination at every stage of the justice system. For an identical case and history, African-American defendants have 10% higher odds of being incarcerated. When they are, they receive 10% longer sentences for the same crime.

African-Americans also face discrimination when they are the victims. Criminals receive lighter sentences when their victim is black1 However, it is not clear whether this is really due to discrimination or to other factors. In fatal traffic accidents, drivers receive a 53% shorter sentence if the person they killed happens to be black. When a black person goes missing, there is 3.1 times less media coverage than if the victim is white2This is called the Missing White Woman Syndrome. This study was conducted in 2016, before the Black Lives Matter movement gained popularity. It would be interesting to see how things have changed as a result..

Institutional discrimination also appears in the education system. Teachers systematically give better grades to students from the white majority than to ethnic minorities, for identical works3There are two kinds of methodologies to address this question. The most common is to compare the grades obtained by a student when the teacher knows her identity, with grades obtained by the same student on blind examinations. The second one is to fabricate a fake essay and ask teachers to grade it, while changing only the name of the student, and see if they are graded differently.. At school, African-American children receive harsher punishments for the same behavior as well as closer surveillance from teachers. And overall, in the US, African-Americans are 12% less likely to access higher education than white people.

Then, there is housing discrimination. When ethnic minorities apply to rent an apartment, their odds of receiving a positive response are 47% lower, everything else equal. With no surprise, African-Americans are 4.5 times as likely to be homeless, and then 45% less likely to be sheltered.

In addition, ethnic minorities generally have poorer health than white people. Black people work more dangerous jobs, making them 33% more likely than white people to be injured at work. They are 16 % more likely to die on their workplace. On average, the life of black people is 4.3 years shorter than white people’s.

Most of those results are from large studies, they are solid and have been replicated many times. Yet some people decide to completely ignore all the evidence, and still deny the existence of racist discrimination. How is it even possible? What is going on in the head of racism-deniers?

2.

Men are 2.5 times more likely than women to be stopped by the police. Police officers are more likely to arrest men and more lenient toward women. Overall, men get killed by the police 20 times more often than women. Then, men face discrimination at every stage of the justice system. Men are more likely to be considered guilty and receive harsher sentences than women for an identical case and history4These studies are called “mock juror trials”. They use a panel of jurors who are presented with a fictional case, where only the gender or ethnicity of the defendant is changed, and asked what the sentence should be. This way, everything is exactly identical except the gender of the defendant, so any difference can be attributed to discrimination. Some studies even staged fake audiences with comedians for extra realism.. Men have 1.64 to 2.15 times higher odds of being incarcerated, depending on the study. When they are, men also receive 30% to 63% longer sentences for the same crime compared to women5These are observational studies, meaning they look at the outcomes of a large number of real-life cases, taking into account offense severity, previous offenses, whether the defendant has to take care of children, and other confounders.. The sexist bias favoring women is much larger than the racial bias – that is, black women are treated better than white men. As you might expect, justice’s double-standard against men is especially marked for sexual offenses.

Men also face discrimination when they are the victims. Criminals receive lighter sentences when their victim is a man6With the same caveat as for racial discrimination.. In fatal traffic accidents, drivers receive a 36% shorter sentence if the person they killed happens to be a man. When a man goes missing, there is 2.9 times less media coverage than if the victim is a woman.

Institutional discrimination also appears in the education system. Teachers systematically give better grades to girls than to boys, for identical works. This happens already in elementary school, continues in middle school, and again in high school, and again in college7Interestingly, these studies found that female teachers were on average more biased in favor of girls than male teachers.. This favoritism for girls has measurable effects on boys’ progress and future career orientation. Parents also invest more time teaching girls than boys and spend 25% more money on girls’ education. At school, boys receive harsher punishments for the same behavior as well as closer surveillance from teachers. And overall, in the US, men are 16% less likely to access higher education than women. Here again, the gender gap is larger than the racial gap8Moreover, unlike for ethnic minorities, there is no affirmative action attempting to correct this disparity – even when women are more likely to access higher education, affirmative action is still in favor of women..

Then, there is housing discrimination. When women apply to rent an apartment, their odds of receiving a positive response are 28% higher than men, everything else equal. With no surprise, men are 1.5 times as likely to be homeless, and then 40% less likely to be sheltered. A study in France found that 90% of the people who die in the streets are men9It should be noted that the gender gap in homelessness is more marked in France than in the USA..

In addition, men generally have poorer health than women. Men work more dangerous jobs, making them 40% more likely than women to be injured at work. They are 8 times more likely to die on their workplace. On average, the life of men is 5 years shorter than women’s10The gap in life expectancy is commonly attributed to biological factors, as a legitimizing myth. However, this study on monks and nuns (who do pretty much the exact same things throughout their lives) found that at most one year of the gap could be attributed to biological differences.. In spite of this, there is much more scientific research and US national offices dedicated to women’s health. Medical research on women’s health receives considerably more funding than men’s health, even for conditions that affect men more often11See the tables from page 56. For lung cancer, in 2016 the NIH spent $180,000,000 for women-specific research,$318,000 (!) for men-specific research, and $136,000,000 for lung cancer in general. They also spent$1,916,000 for women’s suicides, and only \$156,000 for men’s suicides, despite men dying from suicide about four times as often..

Like for racism, most of those results are from large studies, they are solid and have been replicated many times. Yet some people decide to completely ignore all the evidence, and still deny the existence of discrimination privileging women. Just like racism, discrimination against men has been systematically made invisible.

3.

I am aware that many readers will hear about discrimination against men for the first time. Perhaps you’ve heard about discrimination from the police beforehand, but did you know about the grading discrimination? Did you know about the housing discrimination? If not, why didn’t anybody tell you about it?

One thing to consider is that people can’t really tell how much discrimination they face based on their subjective experience. In their classic 1997 book Social Dominance, social psychologists Jim Sidanius and Felicia Pratto report that (in 1997) many African-Americans had no clue about how much racism they faced12See page 106 of the book.. In the 1990s, 58% of African-Americans believed they had the same housing opportunities as white people. 46% thought they had the same chances at employment, and 63% thought they had the same chances in education – despite clear evidence of the contrary13Sidanius and Pratto dedicate the third part of their book to evidence of discrimination against black people. However, they completely disregard discrimination against men – to be fair, most of the evidence that I discussed here was published after the book Social Dominance came out, so you can’t blame the authors.. This is one of the universal patterns described in Social Dominance: unfair treatment against subordinate groups is overlooked, legitimized, and actively erased by the dominant status quo, until even the discriminated population believes it is not real. It is perfectly possible to face discrimination on a daily basis and be completely unaware of it.

In addition, there is growing evidence that people (academics, the media, people in general) care very little about the issues that affect men. Most people know about manspreading, but have never heard about the teacher grading gap. People think gender balance at work is important, but only in professions where women are underrepresented. Scientific studies that find a bias against women are cited far more often than studies that find a bias against men, even when the later use larger samples. Remember the kidnapping study I mentioned above, which found that there is less media coverage when a man goes missing? This is the same process. Presumably, this attention disparity is the result of traditional gender roles, which (among many other things) say that men are not expected to complain, and will be shamed if they do so – but this is a complicated topic that deserves a future blog post on its own.

As a takeaway, there is a striking similarity between discrimination against ethnic minorities and discrimination against men. My point is not to say that minorities or men “have it harder”, nor is it that racism is exactly identical to sexism – the historical and social mechanisms are obviously entirely different. My point is that, currently, men and ethnic minorities experience a similar pattern of stereotyping and discrimination in their daily life. The strange polarization of the culture wars makes it even harder to notice: the political tribes who care about racism are sharply separated from the tribes who care about men’s issues. This is unfortunate, because both tribes share the common goal of eliminating discrimination14Of course, there are also traditionalists who just use men’s issues as an excuse to attack feminism, hoping to restore traditional gender roles. I personally believe, on the contrary, that traditional gender roles are the cause for discrimination, and that we need to step away from them. – maybe their filter bubbles only show them one side of the problem? It took decades for the majority of the population to realize that racist discrimination is real. For sexism against men, such a shift in collective consciousness has yet to happen.

If you spot any mistake or inaccuracy in this text or the supporting evidence, please let me know in the comments, so I can correct it.

Hiring discrimination can be measured by sending fictional resumes to employers, only changing the ethnicity or gender of the applicant, and counting how many replies you get. As you expect, equally-qualified ethnic minorities are far less likely to be hired. Regarding gender discrimination, the evidence is much more mixed. This makes it very easy to cherry-pick studies that show discrimination against women (if you read feminist sources) or against men (if you read MRA sources). This meta-analysis found moderate discrimination against men, but only in female-dominated jobs. This systematic review lists 11 studies looking at pure gender discrimination (man vs woman). Two of them found discrimination against women, four of them found discrimination against men, and the rest found no discrimination. A recent study which tracked recruiters’ behavior on online hiring markets found that women face a 6.7% penalty in men-dominated occupations, and that men face a 12.6% penalty in women-dominated occupations. Overall, gender discrimination in hiring is much less systematic than racial discrimination. This discrepancy is probably a remnant of the traditional gender division of labor, since men were traditionally assigned to salaried jobs. In any case, the common claim that it is harder for women to find employment appears to be wrong.

Changelog:

30-11-2020 – According Leeth et al., 2005, the racial gaps in fatal and non-fatal workplace injuries are respectively 16% and 33%, not 20% as previously reported.

01-02-2021 – A few studies on the effect of victim gender/origins on sentencing found no evidence for discrimination after controlling for case details. Thanks Greg for pointing that out. I also moved hiring discrimination to an annex, and added the recent study by Hangartner et al.

10 Replies to “Invisible privileges”

1. Thank you, I corrected the links. It’s nice to see people actually check the sources.

1. Greg Musaelian says:

No problem! By the way, I fact-checked everything else in this article and everything in it is factual and well-researched.

On the point of police brutality, however, it is important to not that the study you mentioned only compared it to population. It should be compared relative to violent crime, as that is the main indicator of police shootings. Still, it is noteworthy that a vast overrepresentation of men in police brutality exists as men only commit 80% of violent crime and are killed by police 96% of the time. (https://ucr.fbi.gov/crime-in-the-u.s/2018/crime-in-the-u.s.-2018/tables/table-42), (https://www.washingtonpost.com/graphics/2018/national/police-shootings-2018/)

1. person says:

Do you have a breakdown by both gender and race? It’d be good to know how the factors compare and compound, before drawing conclusions.

1. If you are talking about studies that examined both gender and origin in some kind of 2×2 design, there are many of them among the ones cited here (you could just look for links that are cited in both parts). As a general rule, I’d say that the scale of discrimination is not just additive or multiplicative, but (discrimination against black men) >> (discrimination against white men + discrimination against black women). There might be exceptions here and there, but from what I remember it typically goes this way. Is this what you meant?

2. Taylor Jenkins says:

Wow, great job! This is a different perspective, and well supported.

3. Greg Musaelian says:

This is a great article! However, some of the studies you mentioned arrived at different conclusions than you set out to prove. For example, the McGuire et al. 2015 study that you cited found:

“Findings suggest that legal differences account for most of the observed differences in detention, commitment and adjudication among the sample studied… The evaporation of sex and/or race effects in the presence of legal variables suggests that the system is working as it should.”

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/jfcj.12026

This would entail that when a female victim is killed it is no more likely to get a higher sentence than a male victim after accounting for all the relevant factors.

Next, you cited Gillespie et al. 2013 which also arrived at a different conclusion than what you said it did:

“First, and initially the most unexpected finding, was the lack of a significant main effect of victim sex. Prior research examining victim sex and victim race had found consistent evidence of a female victim effect (Holcomb et al. 2004; Williams & Holcomb, 2004; Williams et al., 2007). Using the same dataset as the current study, Stauffer et al. (2006) found a significant main effect of victim sex. However, closer examination reveals that Stauffer et al.’s main effects model only includes those variables replicated from Williams and Holcomb (2004), and not the additional control variables (e.g., total aggravators accepted, rape accepted as an aggravating factor) that were utilized in their interaction effects analyses. Thus, it was speculated that certain factors, specifically rape accepted as an aggravator, may account for the lack of an individual female victim effect.”

https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/1088767913485747

This would entail that the victim being a female sex is not a significant predictor of harsher sentencing outcomes once rape is accounted for.

You also mentioned Baert 2017 to show that there is discrimination against men in hiring, but the same study concluded:

“With respect to evidence on gender discrimination, i.e. the experiments comparing call-back for male and female candidates, the evidence is very mixed. This is related to the particular occupations tested. Indeed, many authors mentioned that gender discrimination was heterogeneous by occupational characteristics (Baert et al., 2015; Petit, 2007; Carlsson, 2011). On the other hand, a significant penalty for being pregnant or being a mother was found in a study from Belgium and one from the United States, respectively (Capéau et al., 2012; Correll An Overview of (Almost) All Correspondence Experiments Since 2005 12 et al., 2007).”

https://wps-feb.ugent.be/Papers/wp_17_936.pdf

This would indicate that the evidence is more mixed than anything. If there’s anything else I find in the article to be somewhat suspect, I will be sure to let you know!

1. Thanks for taking the time to look into it, this is extremely valuable! I updated the claims about victim effect on sentencing. Regarding hiring discrimination, I moved everything to an annex at the end of the article, since it is hard to discuss the problem accurately while keeping the general “symmetry” of the article. I also mentioned a new study that was published in this week’s edition of Nature.

4. Greg Musaelian says:

By the way, here is a research document that could really help you out here: